PSK & PSP Extraction

Historically, when used in traditional Chinese medicine, Coriolus versicolor mushroom was picked, dried and steeped in boiling water and drunk as a tonic to gain access to its properties. Today, there are two primary Coriolus versicolor extraction methods – PSK & PSP. Both of these extraction processes starts with Coriolus versicolor mushroom mycelia then it is extracted with with hot water. After hot water extraction, PSP under goes a ethanol refining process. Finally, the refined product is capsulated and it can be taken orally with ease.

Coriolus versicolor PSK

In 1970s, Japanese scientists were the first who did research on Coriolus Versicolor employing modern technology, and successfully extracted a polysaccharide (PSK) from the CM-101 strain. PSK is patented and proven that it can effectively enhance immunity of human body.

PSK exhibits a marked antineoplastic effect against both syngeneic and allogeneic tumors of experimental animals when administered intraperitoneally or orally. There is strong evidence that in a tumor model with tumor-specific transplantation antigen (TSTA), that PSK’s antitumor effect is through T-cell mediated immunity.

Coriolus versicolor PSP

Coriolus versicolor PSP was invented by a Shanghai Normal University expert team led by Professor Q.Y. Yang in 1982, and the corresponding patent was granted to Shanghai Normal University in 1989. The product was approved by China’s Ministry of Health and later the State Food and Drugs Administration Bureau of China.

PSP stands for Polysaccharide Peptide, a protein-bound polysaccharide extracted from deep-layer-cultivated mycelia of the COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, commonly known as Yun Zhi (or Yunzhi) in China.

PSP is an anticarcinogen and immunological regulator identified. It is composed of five monosaccharides: galactose, glucose, mannose, arabinose and xylose. The amino acids most frequently found are aspartic and glutamic. Molecular weight about 1×105 Dalton.

Real PSP is Never Produced from Fruit Bodies

Published scientific studies of PSP have used only extracts derived from the mycelia stage of the mushroom lifecycle, not extracts from fruitbodies (mature mushrooms). The PSP extracted from mycelia is chemically different to extracts from the fruit body later in the mushroom lifecycle. There are differences in monosaccharide composition (PSP has Galactose) and protein composition (PSP has peptides). It is the chemical composition of PSP from mycelia that has been the subject of scientific research.

The only known process capable of producing the pure and potent Coriolus versicolor mycelium needed as the raw material for research-quality PSP is to extract from mycelia produced through deep layer cultivation in pharmaceutical grade sterile production facilities.

The protein-bound polysaccharide that contains Alpha-1,4; Beta 1,3 glycosidic and beta 1,6 glycosidic bond. The polysaccharopeptide of PSP is not an ordinary beta glucan. The determination of PSP with gas chromatography and HPLC has proved that in addition to glucose, PSP contains 5 other monosaccharides, there are mannose, xylose, galactose, rhamnose and arabinose. When PSP is analyzed with gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy according to Hakomori method, PSP is found to contain a large number of 2,4,6 trimethyl glucose. It reveals that PSP contains 1,3 glycosidic bond. The infrared spectrum of PSP shows that there is an obvious absorption at 8.93 cm-1 of the characteristic vibration zone. In addition when PSP is analyzed with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, there are strong resonance signals at 5.4 PPM of the hydrogen spectrum and 90.35 PPM of carbon spectrum. All these studies prove that in PSP 1,3 glycosidic bond there exists beta connection. It is known that beta 1,3 glucan is the activator of the anti-cancerous immune system of the human body. Sephadex gel chromatograph, DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and HPLC reveal that the polysaccharide and peptide of PSP are closely bound and not separated. Where there is polysaccharide there is polypeptide. It shows that PSP polysaccharide is connected with all small molecular protein (polypeptide). A number of literatures works have proved that only those fungal polysaccharide that are bound with protein can produce anti-tumor effect after oral administration to patients.

Fruit Body Extract, PSK and PSP Comparison

Items Fruit Body Extract PSK PSP
Fungi: Coriolus versicolor, various strain Coriolus versicolor, strain CM-101 Coriolus versicolor, strain Cov-1
Powder color: Blackish brown Dark brown Light brown
Raw material: Fruit body Deep-layer cultivated mycelia Deep-layer cultivated mycelia
Extract method: Ground to powder then hot water extract Mycelium salting out with ammonium sulphate Intracellular extraction, then alcohol precipitation
Medicinal ingredients: Fiber, trace minerals, polysaccharides, relatively
little amount of peptide.
Protein bound polysaccharide, average molecular wt. 1x
105 Da. The polysaccharide is formed from many monosaccharides containing
alpha-1,4 and beta-1,3 glycoside linkage. Peptide mainly consists of aspartic
and glutamic acids. Polysaccharides does not contain arabinose and rhamnose, but
contain fucose
Polysaccharide peptide molecular wt. 1 x 105 Da.
Polysaccharide contain galactose, glucose, mannose, arabinose, rhmanose and
xylose. The amino acids most frequently found are aspartic and glutamic. Nucleic
acid, Alpha-1,4, Beta-1,3 and beta 1,6 glycoside linkages.
Pharmacological function: Increase bowel movement and energy. Inhibiting rate on P388 is 61-90% (1mg/kg). Inhibit the
synthesis of nucleic acid of Ehrlich ascitic cells, and inhibit the accretion of
cancer cells of Sarcoma-180, P388 leukocytes, etc.Inhibition rate on Sarcoma-180
of Kunming mice is 28%.Recover the delayed supersensitive reaction inhibited by chemotherapeutic drugs
such as cyclophosphamide and raise the lowered number of White blood cell.Obviously raise the activity of NK cells and macrophages, raise the contains of
immunoglobulin, complement C3, antibody HC50 and IL-2 and promote the increase
of T-lymphocytes.
Inhibition rate on P388 is 90-96%.Inhibition rate on Sarcoma-180 of Kunming mice is 43%.Same as all in the PSK, plus PSP can increase the alpha and gamma interferons
produced by WBC by 2 to 4 times.
Toxic test: Toxic reaction by aggregation of chromosomes of the lung
cancer cells, but no toxic function on the hamster cells of normal mice.
LD50 >20g/Kg; Ames test and the test of abnormal
chromosomes, nucleotide, reproduction, and abnormality are all negative. Use 50
times clinical dosage for monkey, consecutively for 6 months, no toxic reaction.The tests of acute and chronic toxicity and hereditary toxicology prove that there is no toxic reaction when oral administration of 100 times of the clinical dosage of PSP to rats is made.
Clinical effect: Lessen the toxic and side reactions of chemo- and
radiotherapy, raise the immune function, promote curative effect, prolong life and raise the quality of life.
Lessen the toxic and side reactions of chemo- and
radiotherapy, raise the immune function, promote curative effect, prolong life and raise the quality of life. PSP increases appetite.

Where to Buy:

You can buy ready made PSP & PSK product or other medicinal mushroom derived products from: All their products are made in the USA.