Brenda Koker says:
I have great news about Little Bear. Her external tumors she had on her forehead, which were two of them. Have completely dissapeared. She has been full of energy and not sleeping as much as she was before. The internal tumors have not grown, hoping the same results will come in the future. Thank You for your concersn and support. Happy New Year and an awesome year for Inforce.
Department of Zoology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, SAR, P.R. China.
Activation of the cell death program (apoptosis) is a strategy for the treatment of human cancer, and unfortunately a large number of drugs identified as cell cycle-specific agents for killing cancer cells are also toxic to normal cells. The present study demonstrates that the polysaccharide peptide (PSP) extracted from the Chinese medicinal mushroom, Coriolus versicolor, used in combination therapy in China, has the ability to lower the cytotoxicity of certain anti-leukemic drugs via their interaction with cell cycle-dependent and apoptotic pathways. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that pre-treatment of PSP (25-100 microg/ml) dose-dependently enhanced the cell cycle perturbation and apoptotic activity of doxorubicin (Doxo) and etoposide (VP-16), but not cytarabine (Ara-C) in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. The antagonistic result from combined treatment with Ara-C and PSP may be caused by the removal of HL-60 cells in the G1-S boundary by PSP before exposure to Ara-C. A negative correlation between the increase in apoptotic cell population (pre-G1 peak) with the S-phase cell population expression (R2=0.998), the expression of cyclin E expression (R2=0.872) and caspase 3 activity (R2=0.997) suggests that PSP enhanced the apoptotic machinery of Doxo and VP-16 in a cell cycle-dependent manner and is mediated, at least in part, by the PSP-mediated modulation of the regulatory checkpoint cyclin E and caspase 3. This study is the first to describe the cell cycle mechanistic action of PSP and its interaction with other anticancer agents. Our data support the potential development of PSP as an adjuvant for leukemia treatment, but also imply the importance of understanding its interaction with individual anticancer agents.
CY Ho, CF Kim, KN Leung, KP Fung, TF Tse, H Chan, CB Lau.
School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.
Coriolus versicolor (CV), also called Yunzhi, has been demonstrated to exert anti-tumor effects on various types of cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-tumor activity of a standardized aqueous ethanol extract prepared from CV on four breast cancer cell lines using MTT assay, and test whether the mechanism involves apoptosis induction and modulation of p53 and Bcl-2 protein expressions using cell death detection ELISA, p53 and Bcl-2 ELISAs respectively. Our results demonstrated that the CV extract dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of three breast tumor cell lines, with ascending order of IC50 values: T-47D, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, while BT-20 cells were not significantly affected. Tumoricidal activity of the CV extract was found to be comparable to a chemotherapeutic anti-cancer drug, mitomycin C. Nucleosome productions in apoptotic MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and T-47D cells were significantly augmented in a time-dependent manner and paralleled the anti-proliferative activity of CV extract. Expression of p53 protein was significantly upregulated only in T-47D cells treated with the CV extract in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, but not in MCF-7 (except at 400 mug/ml after 16 h) and MDA-MB-231 cells. The CV extract significantly induced a dose-dependent downregulation of Bcl-2 protein expression in MCF-7 and T-47D cells, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results suggested that apoptosis induction, differentially dependent of p53 and Bcl-2 expressions, might be the possible mechanism of CV extract-mediated cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells in vitro.
We have already reported antitumor activities of fungal and bacterial polysaccharides on mice. In the present experiment, the influence of the sex on antitumor effects on such material from Grifola umbellata, Coriolus versicolor Fries or Sargassum thumbergii and the immunity of mice against tumor were investigated. The growth velocities of Sarcoma 180, Ehrlich solid carcinoma, Pulmonary tumor 7423 and MF-sarcoma bearing mice both without treatment and those treated with polysaccharides were more rapid in males than in females. The regression rates in mice with the above tumors were higher in females than in males. However, a few DS Mie mice with Sarcoma 180 and A/Jax Mie mice with Ehrlich solid carcinoma regressed spontaneously. The growth velocity of Shionogi carcinoma 42 was not influenced by the sex. On other hand, both males and females which had experienced a regression of ascites tumor after the administration of polysaccharides rejected the re-implanted Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Sarcoma 180, NF-sarcomma and Shionogi carcinoma 42. These results suggest that a strong ehancement of immune response occurs in the tumor implanted in the host animal by the administration of polysacchrides. The combination of X-ray irradiation Ehrlich ascites cells and polysacchrides strengthens the antitumor effect of NF-sarcoma and Shionogi carcinoma 42. Peritoneal exudate cells and lymphocytes were compared between the male and female mice after being treated with ATSO and P.GU-1. Such cells were present to a much greater extent in females.
PSK is a protein-bound polysaccharide prepared from cultured mycelium of the Basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor. Effects of PSK on the immunologic responsiveness in tumor-bearing animals were investigated using syngeneic or allogeneic tumors in mice (Lewis lung carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Meth A fibrosarcoma, adenocarcinoma 755, X5563 plasmacytoma, colon 26, MOPC 31C myeloma, sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich carcinoma), rats (BC47 bladder carcinoma, Walker 256 sarcoma and AH7974 hepatoma), hamsters (HA-1T tumor and RPMI 1846 melanoma), guinea pigs (line-10 hepatoma) and rabbit (VX2 and VX7 tumor). Oral or intraperitoneal administration of PSK restored the depressed delayed hypersensitivity against sheep erythrocytes to a normal level in these tumor-host systems. Also, oral administration of PSK lowered the activity of immunosuppressive substances in the serum of tumor-bearing animals. These results suggest that PSK exhibits antitumor effects by restoring the depressed immunologic responsiveness in tumor-bearing animals.
Department of Pharmacology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Japan.
OK-432, a lyophilized preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, showed a priming activity for TNF production in mice, associated with an increase of spleen weight. PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide preparation from Coriolus versicolor, did not show such activity. Both OK-432 and PSK potentiated the TNF production in mice primed with Corynebacterium parvum (CP) and challenged with Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS). Cytotoxic antitumor agents of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cyclophosphamide (CY) and bleomycin (BLM) suppressed TNF production in mice primed with CP and challenged with LPS. TNF production suppressed by 5-FU, CY and BLM was partially restored by the combined treatment with OK-432 or PSK. These results suggest that the administration of cytotoxic antitumor agents suppresses the intrinsic TNF production in cancer patients, and the combined use of immunostimulants such as OK-432 and PSK is advantageous in restoring TNF production suppressed by cytotoxic antitumor agents.
Kureha Chemical Ind. Co., Ltd., Biomedical Research Laboratories, Tokyo, Japan.
The antitumor effects of a protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) obtained from cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in basidiomycetes on mammary gland tumors produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by the intravenous injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea were investigated. PSK prolonged the survival period of tumor-bearing rats significantly, when given at the dose of 250 mg/kg twice a week for 3 weeks after the tumor reached 100 mm2 in size (p = 0.011 by log rank test and p = 0.023 by generalized Wilcoxon test). These findings suggest that PSK is effective in the prolongation of the survival period in the rat autochthonous tumor model, acting at the growth stage of the tumor during carcinogenesis.
Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths, and over 60% of patients present with advanced stages. Although polysaccharide peptides (PSP), isolated from the fungus Coriolus versicolor, have been reported to have anti-tumor effects, its clinical efficacy has not been properly evaluated.
METHODS: Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study to evaluate the effects of 28-day administration of PSP (Windsor Pharmaceutical, Hong Kong) on patients, who had completed conventional treatment for advanced NSCLC.
RESULTS: Thirty-four patients, with no significant difference in their baseline demographic, clinical or tumor characteristics, or previous treatment regimes (P>0.05) were recruited into each of the PSP and control arms. After 28-day treatment, there was a significant improvement in blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts, serum IgG and IgM, and percent of body fat among the PSP, but not the control, patients (P<0.05). Although the evaluable PSP patients did not improve in NSCLC-related symptoms, there were significantly less PSP patients withdrawn due to disease progression, than their control counterparts (5.9 and 23.5%, respectively; P=0.04; OR 4.00). There was no reported adverse reaction attributable to the trial medications.
CONCLUSION: PSP treatment appears to be associated with slower deterioration in patients with advanced NSCLC.