Changes to water repellence of soil caused by the growth of white-rot fungi: studies using a novel microcosm system.

White NA, Hallett PD, Feeney D, Palfreyman JW, Ritz K.

SIMBIOS, School of Science and Engineering, University of Abertay Dundee, Bell Street, Dundee, UK.


A microcosm system is described which permits assessment of the progressive growth of filamentous fungi through soil. We report on its application to measure the effects of Coriolus versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium upon the sorptivity and water repellence of a mineral soil, measured using a miniature infiltration device. Both fungal species caused moderate sub-critical repellence. Since the pore structure was unaffected, the repellence was probably due to hydrophobic substances of fungal origin. This is the first report of changes in soil repellence caused by the growth of potential xenobiotic bioremediating fungi. The potential consequences are discussed.

PMID: 10689169 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment.

Kidd PM.


Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is poorly defined but has shown early clinical promise. Maitake D-Fraction has limited proof of clinical efficacy to date, but controlled research is underway. Two proteoglycans from Coriolus versicolor – PSK (Polysaccharide-K) and PSP (Polysaccharide-Peptide – have demonstrated the most promise. In Japanese trials since 1970, PSK significantly extended survival at five years or beyond in cancers of the stomach, colon-rectum, esophagus, nasopharynx, and lung (non-small cell types), and in a HLA B40-positive breast cancer subset. PSP was subjected to Phase II and Phase III trials in China. In double-blind trials, PSP significantly extended five-year survival in esophageal cancer. PSP significantly improved quality of life, provided substantial pain relief, and enhanced immune status in 70-97 percent of patients with cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, ovary, and cervix. PSK and PSP boosted immune cell production, ameliorated chemotherapy symptoms, and enhanced tumor infiltration by dendritic and cytotoxic T-cells. Their extremely high tolerability, proven benefits to survival and quality of life, and compatibility with chemotherapy and radiation therapy makes them well suited for cancer management regimens.

PMID: 10696116 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes.

Ooi VE, Liu F.

Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong.


In the last three decades, numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes have been isolated from mushrooms and used as a source of therapeutic agents. The most promising biopharmacological activities of these biopolymers are their immunomodulation and anti-cancer effects. They are mainly present as glucans with different types of glycosidic linkages such as (1–>3), (1–>6)-beta-glucans and (1–>3)-alpha-glucans, and as true herteroglycans, while others mostly bind to protein residues as polysaccharide-protein complexes. Three antitumor mushroom polysaccharides, i.e. lentinan, schizophyllan and protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK, Krestin), isolated respectively, from Lentinus edodes, Schizophyllum commune and Coriolus versicolor, have become large market items in Japan. Lentinan and schizophyllan are pure beta-glucans, whereas PSK is a protein-bound beta-glucan. A polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from a strain of Coriolus versicolor in China, has also been widely used as an anti-cancer and immunomodulatory agent. Although the mechansim of their antitumor action is still not completely clear, these polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes are suggested to enhance cell-mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro and act as biological response modifiers. Potentiation of the host defense system may result in the activation of many kinds of immune cells that are vitally important for the maintenance of homeostasis. Polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes are considered as multi-cytokine inducers that are able to induce gene expression of vaious immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors. Some interesting studies focus on investigation of the relationship between their structure and antitumor activity, elucidation of their antitumor mechanism at the molecular level, and improvement of their various biological activities by chemical modifications.

PMID: 10702635 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Dr. Mark Flannery Joins inLife LLC’s Board as Medical Advisor

Irvine, California inLife, LLC distributors of science-based Health & Wellness products, today announced Dr. Mark Flannery joins inLife’s Board as Medical Advisor. Dr. Flannery, who specializes in the treatment of autoimmune disorders and chronic illness using advanced nutritional therapies is a Diplomate of the College of Clinical Nutrition, a Diplomate of the Chiropractic Board of Clinical Nutrition, and a Certified Nutrition Specialist by the Certification Board for Nutrition Specialists, today joins inLife to bring awareness and enlightenment to the public of inLife’s new immunological nutritional supplement, inForce Immune Builder.

Dr. Flannery who assists his patients in achieving their optimal health by focusing on correcting the imbalances in their physiology says, “After much research and analization of inLife inForce Immune Builder’s main ingredient Coriolus versicolor, I am very proud to be part of a company that is on the verge of helping many, many people realize their true health potential. In reviewing the research and viewing many of the testimonials so far submitted to inLife I am convinced that inForce Immune Builder should be part of everyone’s daily nutritional routine.” Dr. Flannery will also soon be seen interviewed by Cristina Ferrare on inLife’s soon-to-be-viewed national infomercial about the science behind inForce Immune Builder.

About Coriolus Versicolor

The Coriolus Versicolor mushroom is one of the most widely studied supplements for its immune building properties. Worldwide, there have been over 400 animal and human studies on Coriolus versicolor with over a dozen placebo-based human trials conducted in the west. Traditionally, the Coriolus versicolor mushroom (known as Yun-zhi or cloud mushroom in China) has been used in China for several thousand years because of its immune boosting capabilities. In the 1980s, Dr. Yang conducted further studies and was able to isolate a much more potent strain using a different, alcohol-based extraction process. The result was Polysaccharopeptide or PSP. In the United States, top-ranked hospital and research institutes have reported that Coriolus versicolor helps boost the body’s immune systems with limited side effects and safety of daily oral doses for extended periods of time. In addition, Coriolus versicolor and its potential positive effects has been studied very closely by M.D. Anderson, University of Texas, Loma Linda University, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School) , The University of San Diego, Sloan-Kettering Center (New York), and Bastyr University (Kenmore, Washington) just to name a few.

inLife Immune Builder with PSP and PSK

inLife offers Coriolus versicolor as a Daily Dietary Supplement in capsule form to help maintain and stimulate the body’s immune system. Coriolus versicolor and its high-potency extracts, PSK and PSP are among the most widely studied supplements for their immune building properties. One would be hard-pressed to find another immune boosting product that has had more research completed or positive comments associated with it. The amount of worldwide comments and studies is compelling. InForce Immune Builder is a proprietary blend of both Polysaccharide-K (PSK) and Polysaccharopeptide (PSP). Both offer much needed immune building assistance and they can be taken on a daily basis. The products are bottled in the United States in an FDA registered bottling facility that is CGMP compliant (Current Good Manufacturing Practices).

About inLife, LLC

Founded in 2007, inLife has been very successful in bringing to market products that have efficacies that are soundly based on scientific research. inLife products are now available in the U.S. as well as the U.K, Canada and Spain. For more information on inForce Immune Builder and the company, please review For further details on inForce, journalists may contact Thomas Kiklas directly at 949-648-2525.

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Founded in 2007, inLife has been very successful in bringing to market products that have efficacies that are soundly based on scientific research. For further details on inForce, journalists may contact Thomas Kiklas directly at 949-648-2525.

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Hydroxyl radical generation by an extracellular low-molecular-weight substance and phenol oxidase activity during wood degradation by the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor.

Tanaka H, Itakura S, Enoki A.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, 3327-204 Nakamachi, Nara, Japan


One-electron oxidation activity, as measured by ethylene generation from 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyric acid, phenol oxidase activity, and the generation of hydroxyl radical were examined in cultures of the lignin-degrading white-rot basidiomycete fungus, Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor. The activity levels of specific lignin-degrading enzymes and cellulases, as well as the rate of wood degradation, also were examined. The fungus secreted a low-molecular-weight substance (M(r) 1000-5000) that catalyzed a redox reaction between molecular oxygen and an electron donor, to produce the hydroxyl radical via hydrogen peroxide. During wood decay, T. versicolor also produced significant amounts of laccase and lignin peroxidase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and Avicelase. The roles of the hydroxyl radical, phenol oxidases, and cellulases in wood degradation by white-rot fungi are discussed. That the hydroxyl radical produced by the low-molecular-weight substance secreted by T. versicolor results in new phenolic substructures on the lignin polymer, making it susceptible to attack by laccase or manganese peroxidase is suggested.

PMID: 10704993 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Reactions of pentachlorophenol with laccase from Coriolus versicolor.

Ullah MA, Bedford CT, Evans CS.

Fungal Biotechnology Group, School of Biosciences, University of Westminster, London, UK.


Laccase, purified from Coriolus versicolor, removed pentachlorophenol (PCP) from solution at pH 5, depending on initial PCP concentration and amount of laccase. With 100 units of laccase, 100% of 25 microg ml(-1) PCP and 60% of 200 microg ml(-1) PCP were removed respectively over 72 h. No free chloride was released in the reaction. In reaction with 100 microg PCP, products were primarily polymers (about 80,000 MW) with only 2-3 pg of o- and p-chloranils formed. Polymers were stable to acid hydrolysis and no release of PCP, or other low-molecular-weight products, was detected over several weeks. Laccase has a potential use in the biotreatment of aqueous effluents containing PCP, with polymerised products being removed from solution due to their high molecular weight.

PMID: 10709987 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of environmental conditions on biological decolorization of textile dyestuff by C. versicolor.

Kapdan IK, Kargia F, McMullan G, Marchant R.

Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Buca, Izmir, Turkey


Effects of environmental conditions such as pH, media composition, carbon and nitrogen sources, TOC/N ratio, and dyestuff concentrations on decolorization of reactive phytalocyanin type textile dyestuff Everzol Turquoise Blue G by white rot fungi, Coriolus versicolor 20) or low nitrogen concentration was essential for effective decolorization of the dyestuff. Dyestuff concentration should be lower than 500 mg/l for complete decolorization. Only partial decolorization was observed for dyestuff concentrations above 500 mg/l. Adsorption of the dyestuff on surfaces of the fungi was insignificant (<20%).

PMID: 10713211 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Generation of nuclear hybrids overcoming the natural barrier of incompatibility: transfer of nuclei from Lentinula edodes into protoplasts of Coriolus versicolor.

Kim C, Choi EC, Kim BK.

Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Korea.


Heterokaryotic nuclear hybrids overcoming the natural barriers of incompatibility have been studied in basidiomycetes. To produce these nuclear hybrids between incompatible mushrooms, which have several potent pharmacological effects, nuclear transfer was performed between Lentinula edodes and Coriolus versicolor. Nuclei from serine auxotrophs of Lentinula edodes, LE207 (Ser-) were transferred into the protoplasts of arginine auxotrophs of Coriolus versicolor, CV17 (Arg-), using 30% polyethylene glycol 4000 in 10 mM CaCl2-glycine solution (pH 8.0). Nuclear transfer progenies were selected by nutritional complementation on minimal media supplemented with 0.6 M sucrose. The progenies were classified based on colony morphology to L. edodes-like, C. versicolor-like and non-parental type. Most of the progenies grew slower than either parent. The number of nuclei per cell was similar but the DNA content varied between progenies. The isozyme patterns of nuclear hybrids resembled either of the parent profiles or showed a mixed profile.

PMID: 10728662 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of ethanol on enzymatic activity of fungal laccases.

Rodakiewicz-Nowak J, Haber J, Pozdnyakova N, Leontievsky A, Golovleva LA.

Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow.


Blue laccase from Coriolus versicolor and blue and yellow laccases from Panus tigrinus were isolated, purified and studied in acetate buffer solutions, with and without addition of various amounts of ethanol, using syringaldazine and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol as substrates. Effect of ethanol on blue laccases could be successfully described using the mixed inhibition model, over the range of 0-2.5 M ethanol concentrations. Yellow laccase from P. tigrinus behaves differently, which may be explained by the presence of some extra molecules in its structure, which possibly stabilize the enzyme and might be exchanged in ethanol solutions.

PMID: 10841275 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Susceptibility of natural killer (NK) cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their restoration by the mimics of superoxide dismutase (SOD).

Nakamura K, Matsunaga K.

Department of Biochemistry, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.


Natural killer (NK) cells are susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lose the activity by the effects of ROS. Cancer bearing hosts usually suffer from oxidative stress (OS), and the NK-activity decreases to a significantly lower level than normal controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-mimicking substances, such as protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor (Fr) QUEL (PSK) and iron-chelating chlorine e6-Na (FeCNa), can restore the NK-activity of cancer bearing hosts, when collaborating with catalase. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine by ROS-treated NK-cells is not affected, indicating that these cells are still active in the nucleic acid metabolism. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-Asialo GM1 antibody extinguished the NK-activity. NK-cells affected by ROS lost the adherence to target cancer cells in both in vitro and in vivo. ROS may change the surface charge of NK-cells to anionic, resulting in an inability of adhesion to target cancer cells which usually show the negative surface charge.

PMID: 10850363 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]