Using the differential display reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) technique, several cDNA fragments were isolated as chemical stress responsive genes from the white-rot basidiomycete, Coriolus versicolor, exposed to either 4-methyldibenzothiophene-5-oxide (4MDBTO) or dibenzothiophene-5-oxide (DBTO). A database search on deduced amino acid sequences of cDNAs revealed that they showed a high similarity with various proteins from other organisms. These results strongly suggested that cell responding systems might be involved in the fungal metabolism of exogenous chemicals by C. versicolor. One of the significantly up-regulated cDNA fragments by MDBTO, DD16gc, showed a high similarity to arylalcohol dehydrogenases (AADs) from several microorganisms. The full-length cDNA sequence of the DD16gc determined by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends method revealed that the gene consisted 1,295 nucleotide and poly(A) tail, encoding 394 amino acids in an open reading frame. The deduced protein showed a remarkable homology to AAD from Phanerochaete chrysosporium (66% identity) and to that from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (54% identity). The AAD gene was specifically transcripted under chemically-stressed conditions by 4MDBTO, suggesting that the enzyme encoded by the stress responsive gene may play an important role in the fungal conversion of 4MDBTO or its metabolic product(s).
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this in vitro study was to test the cytostatic and cytotoxic activities of extracts derived from the polysaccharopeptide (PSP), I’m-Yunity (Integrated Chinese Medicine Holdings Ltd., Kowloon, Hong Kong) prepared from strain Cov-1 of the mushroom Coriolus versicolor.
DESIGN: Different volumes of 70% ethanol and water extracts of I’m-Yunity were incubated with cultures of human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and compared to nontreated control cells. At various times after treatment, cells were harvested and analyzed with respect to: (1). proliferation and cell cycle phase distribution, (2). induction of apoptosis, and (3). changes in expression of the immunomodulating cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8. To test whether extracts also affected normal cells, similar experiments were also performed using isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers, with and without stimulation by the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The ability of extracts to affect the secretion of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS: HL-60 cells incubated with various amounts (1, 3, 5, 7.5, and 10 micro l/mL) of the extracts for 1-3 days showed dose-dependent, time-dependent growth suppression and decrease in cell viability. Flow cytometric analysis revealed partial cell arrest in the G(1) phase at less than 5 micro L/mL and induction of apoptosis at 10 micro L/mL or more of ethanol and water extracts, with the latter exhibiting more pronounced inhibition than the former. Experiments performed with lymphocytes demonstrated that extracts of I’m-Yunity alone were without effect; moreover, they also did not affect the lymphocyte response to PHA. Water extract of I’m-Yunity also significantly increased IL-1 beta and IL-6 while substantially lowering IL-8.
CONCLUSIONS: I’m-Yunity acts selectively in HL-60 leukemic cells, resulting in cell cycle restriction through the G(1)/S checkpoint and the induction of apoptosis.
Department of Microbiology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005, Punjab, India.
The ligninolytic system of white rot fungi is primarily composed of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase. The present work was carried out to determine the best culture conditions for production of MnP and its activity in the relatively little-explored cultures of Dichomitus squalens, Irpex flavus and Polyporus sanguineus, as compared with conditions for Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus versicolor. Studies on enzyme production under different nutritional conditions revealed veratryl alcohol, guaiacol, Reax 80 and Polyfon H to be excellent MnP inducers.
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.
Both laccase production by the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor and decolorization of dyestuff and dying waste water with crude solution of laccase were studied in this work. Laccase production meets the definition of secondary metabolism. For laccase production the optimum initial pH is 4.5. Addition of veratryl alcohol or elevated trace metals could both enhance the laccase activity, while Tween80 showed some inhibition. The immobilized mycelia of C. versicolor in polyurethane foam had less laccase production ability than mycelial pellets. A repeated batch cultivation process was found to be a very economical way for laccase harvest. The same pellets could be used for at least 14 times and average laccase activity of each batch could maintain 6.72 IU/mL. This method reduces the enzyme production course, medium consumption and the possibility of contamination, showing high efficient and great economic benefit. Good results were also obtained in decolorization experiments with the crude solution of laccase. With 3.3 IU/mL initial laccase activity, color removal of Acid Orange reached 98.5% after 24 h reaction. Also with 2.6 IU/mL initial laccase activity, color removal of dying waste water reached 93% after 24 h reaction.
National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, Alberta T9G 1A8, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated.
PMID: 12571066 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC143626Free PMC Article
Institute of Medicinal Plant, CAMS, PUMC, Beijing 100094.
This paper summarizes the resources of anticarcinogenic medical fungi, and the information of distribution, eco-environment. It outlines the present statuts of the exploitation and utilization of some species of common anticarcinogenic medical fungi such as Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, Polyporus frondosus etc. The anticarcinogenic mechanism of medical fungi is discussed. Suggestions on how to development and utilize rationally these resources are offered as well.
Edible Fungi Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201106, China. email@example.com
AIM: To study the structure of polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor.
METHODS: By chromatography a homogeneous polysaccharide B-1-3 was obtained. The structure of B-1-3 was elucidated using the method of total acid hydrolysis, methylation, and 1D and 2D NMR.
RESULTS: B-1-3 was found to be mainly composed of Glc by total acid hydrolysis. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 3.16 x 10(5) by HPLC method. Methylation analysis and 1H and 13CNMR indicated the main chain of B-1-3 consisted of beta-D-1,4-Glc and beta-D-1,3-Glc, and branch chains were situated, beta-D-1,3,6-Glc and beta-D-1,4,6-Glc. 1H and 13CNMR also showed that beta-D-Glc-1–>3-beta-D-Glc-beta-D-Glc-1–>4-beta-D-Glc and beta-D-Glc-1–>4-beta-D-Glc-beta-D-Glc-1–>4-beta-D-Glc fragments existed in B-1-3.
CONCLUSION: B-1-3 is a glucan which main chain was composed of beta-D-1,4-Glc and beta-D-1,3-Glc beta-D-1,6-Glc.
Department of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.
The capability of decolorization for commercial dyes by Coriolus versicolor fermentation broth containing laccase with or without immobilized mycelium was evaluated. With cell-free fermentation broth containing laccase, high decolorization ratio was achieved foracid orange 7, but not for the other dyes concerned. The immobilized mycelium was proved to be more efficient than the cell-free system. All the four dyestuffs studied were found being decolourized with certain extent by immobilized mycelium. The repeated-batch decolorization was carried out with satisfactory results. The experimental data showed that the continuous decolorization of wastewater from a printing and dyeing industry was possible by using the self-immobilized C. versicolor.
Department of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.
The production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor was studied. The effect of cultivation conditions on laccase production by Coriolus versicolor was examined to obtain optimal medium and cultivation conditions. Both batch and repeated-batch processes were performed for laccase production. In repeated-batch fermentation with self-immobilized mycelia, total of 14 cycles were performed with laccase activity in the range between 3.4 and 14.8 U/ml.
Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths, and over 60% of patients present with advanced stages. Although polysaccharide peptides (PSP), isolated from the fungus Coriolus versicolor, have been reported to have anti-tumor effects, its clinical efficacy has not been properly evaluated.
METHODS: Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study to evaluate the effects of 28-day administration of PSP (Windsor Pharmaceutical, Hong Kong) on patients, who had completed conventional treatment for advanced NSCLC.
RESULTS: Thirty-four patients, with no significant difference in their baseline demographic, clinical or tumor characteristics, or previous treatment regimes (P>0.05) were recruited into each of the PSP and control arms. After 28-day treatment, there was a significant improvement in blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts, serum IgG and IgM, and percent of body fat among the PSP, but not the control, patients (P<0.05). Although the evaluable PSP patients did not improve in NSCLC-related symptoms, there were significantly less PSP patients withdrawn due to disease progression, than their control counterparts (5.9 and 23.5%, respectively; P=0.04; OR 4.00). There was no reported adverse reaction attributable to the trial medications.
CONCLUSION: PSP treatment appears to be associated with slower deterioration in patients with advanced NSCLC.