Macrophage-stimulating activity of polysaccharides extracted from fruiting bodies of Coriolus versicolor (Turkey Tail Mushroom).

Jeong SC, Yang BK, Kim GN, Jeong H, Wilson MA, Cho Y, Rao KS, Song CH.

Department of Biotechnology, Daegu University, Gyungbuk, Korea.


The macrophage-stimulating effect of Turkey Tail mushroom extracted from Coriolus versicolor (Turkey Tail mushroom) was investigated, and their effectiveness was compared with that of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The purified polysaccharide (CV-S2-Fr.I) of C. versicolor obtained by Sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography stimulated macrophage lysosomal enzyme activity by 250% at a concentration of 100 microg/mL, which was higher than that of LPS at the same concentration. When CV-S2-Fr.I was used in combination with interferon-gamma, there was a marked cooperative induction of nitric oxide production. However, CV-S2-Fr.I had no effect on nitric oxide production by itself. The proportion of C3-positive macrophages in the CV-S2-Fr.I group increased by 7.2-fold compared with the control group.

PMID: 16822202 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract attenuates growth of human leukemia xenografts and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway.

Ho CY, Kim CF, Leung KN, Fung KP, Tse TF, Chan H, Lau CB.

School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, PR China.


Coriolus versicolor (CV), also called Yunzhi, has been demonstrated to exert anti-tumor effects on various types of cancer cells. Our previous studies have demonstrated that a standardized aqueous ethanol extract prepared from CV inhibited the proliferation of human leukemia cells via induction of apoptosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis through modulation of Bax, Bcl-2 and cytochrome c protein expressions in a human pro-myelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line, as well as the potential of the CV extract as anti-leukemia agent using the athymic mouse xenograft model. Our results demonstrated that the CV extract dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of HL-60 cells (IC50 = 150.6 microg/ml), with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. Expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax was significantly up-regulated in HL-60 cells treated with the CV extract, especially after 16 and 24 h. Meanwhile, expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was concomitantly down-regulated, as reflected by the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The CV extract markedly, but transiently, promoted the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol after 24-h incubation. In vivo studies in the athymic nude mouse xenograft model also confirmed the growth-inhibitory activity of the CV extract on human leukemia cells. In conclusion, the CV extract attenuated the human leukemia cell proliferation in vivo, and in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The CV extract is likely to be valuable for the treatment of some forms of human leukemia.

PMID: 16865263 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Induction of cell cycle changes and modulation of apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic and extracellular signaling regulatory protein expression by water extracts of I’m-Yunity (PSP).

Hsieh TC, Wu P, Park S, Wu JM.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.


BACKGROUND: I’m-Yunity (PSP) is a mushroom extract derived from deep-layer cultivated mycelia of the patented Cov-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor (CV), which contains as its main bioactive ingredient a family of polysaccharo-peptide with heterogeneous charge properties and molecular sizes. I’m-Yunity (PSP) is used as a dietary supplement by cancer patients and by individuals diagnosed with various chronic diseases. Laboratory studies have shown that I’m-Yunity (PSP) enhances immune functions and also modulates cellular responses to external challenges. Recently, I’m-Yunity (PSP) was also reported to exert potent anti-tumorigenic effects, evident by suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. We investigate the mechanisms by which I’m-Yunity (PSP) elicits these effects.

METHODS: Human leukemia HL-60 and U-937 cells were incubated with increasing doses of aqueous extracts of I’m-Yunity (PSP). Control and treated cells were harvested at various times and analyzed for changes in: (1) cell proliferation and viability, (2) cell cycle phase transition, (3) induction of apoptosis, (4) expression of cell cycle, apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic, and extracellular regulatory proteins.

RESULTS: Aqueous extracts of I’m-Yunity (PSP) inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HL-60 and U-937 cells, accompanied by a cell type-dependent disruption of the G1/S and G2/M phases of cell cycle progression. A more pronounced growth suppression was observed in treated HL-60 cells, which was correlated with time- and dose-dependent down regulation of the retinoblastoma protein Rb, diminution in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins bcl-2 and survivin, increase in apoptogenic proteins bax and cytochrome c, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) from its native 112-kDa form to the 89-kDa truncated product. Moreover, I’m-Yunity (PSP)-treated HL-60 cells also showed a substantial decrease in p65 and to a lesser degree p50 forms of transcription factor NF-kappaB, which was accompanied by a reduction in the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). I’m-Yunity (PSP) also elicited an increase in STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription) and correspondingly, decrease in the expression of activated form of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase).

CONCLUSION: Aqueous extracts of I’m-Yunity (PSP) induces cell cycle arrest and alterations in the expression of apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic and extracellular signaling regulatory proteins in human leukemia cells, the net result being suppression of proliferation and increase in apoptosis. These findings may contribute to the reported clinical and overall health effects of I’m-Yunity (PSP).

PMID: 16965632 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1574346Free PMC Article

Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood.

Mazela B.

Institute of Chemical Wood Technology, Agricultural University of Pozna?, Wojska Polskiego 38/42, PL-60637 Pozna?, Poland.


The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives.

PMID: 17011772 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Biocontrol of wood-rotting fungi with Streptomyces violaceusniger XL-2.

Shekhar N, Bhattacharya D, Kumar D, Gupta RK.

School of Biotechnology, GGS Indraprastha University, Delhi, India.


During the previous decade, chitinases have received increased attention because of their wide range of applications. Chito-oligomers produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin have been of interest in recent years because of their broad applications in medical, agricultural, and industrial applications, such as antibacterial, antifungal, hypo cholesterolemic, and antihypertensive activity, and as food quality enhancer. Fungal cell walls being rich in chitin also enable the use of chitinases in biocontrol of fungal pathogens, as bio-fungicides. An actinomycete was isolated from the bark of trees of Dehradun in India and was later identified as Streptomyces violaceusniger. This strain exhibits strong antagonism towards various wood-rotting fungi, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Postia placenta, Coriolus versicolor, and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Further, studies showed an extracellular bioactive compound was responsible for the antagonism. The conditions for the production of this biocontrol agent were optimized, and the effects of various stress factors (like nitrogen-deficient media, carbon-deficient media, etc.) were studied. The presence of chitin in the growth media was found to be an essential factor for the active production of the biocontrol agent. The pH and temperature optima for the biocontrol agent were determined. Purification and characterization of this specific biocontrol agent was performed through anion exchange chromatography using a DEAE-cellulose column, and a single protein band was obtained on a 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel. The protein was later identified as a 28 kDa endo chitinase by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight) and by a chitobiose activity assay.

PMID: 17110971 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Dr. Yang, Inventor of Coriolus Versicolor PSP extract, Joins inLife as Medical Advisor

Irvine, California (September 15, 2010) inLife, LLC distributors of science-based Health & Wellness products today announced that Professor Q.Y. Yang, inventor of Coriolus versicolor mushroom Polysaccharopeptide (PSP, also commonly called Polysaccharide-peptide) extract, will be on inLife’s Board as Medical Advisor. Dr. Yang is recognized as the world’s foremost expert on Coriolus versicolor research. He is currently the director of the Research Institute of Microbiology & Immunology of Shanghai Teachers University, where he invented the technique of submerged cultivation of mycelia of mushrooms. Dr. Yang is responsible for identifying and isolating the most effective COV-1 strain from over 100 different strains of Coriolus versicolor. In recognition of his invention of PSP and also his outstanding achievements in traditional Chinese medicine, Professor Yang has been recognized with many international honors. Dr. Yang has also received a patent for his discovery of PSP extraction process.

About Coriolus Versicolor

The Coriolus Versicolor mushroom is one of the most widely studied supplements for its immune building properties. Worldwide, there have been over 400 animal and human studies on Coriolus versicolor with over a dozen placebo-based human trials conducted in the west. Traditionally, the Coriolus versicolor mushroom (known as Yun-zhi or cloud mushroom in China) has been used in China for several thousand years because of its immune boosting capabilities. In the 1980s, Dr. Yang conducted further studies and was able to isolate a much more potent strain using a different, alcohol-based extraction process. The result was Polysaccharopeptide or PSP. In the United States, top-ranked hospital and research institutes have reported that Coriolus versicolor helps boost the body’s immune systems with limited side effects and safety of daily oral doses for extended periods of time. In addition, Coriolus versicolor and its potential positive effects has been studied very closely by M.D. Anderson, University of Texas, Loma Linda University, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School) , The University of San Diego, Sloan-Kettering Center (New York), and Bastyr University (Kenmore, Washington) just to name a few.

inLife Immune Builder with PSP and PSK

inLife offers Coriolus versicolor as a Daily Dietary Supplement in capsule form to help maintain and stimulate the body’s immune system. Coriolus versicolor and its high-potency extracts, PSK and PSP are among the most widely studied supplements for their immune building properties. One would be hard-pressed to find another immune boosting product that has had more research completed or positive comments associated with it. The amount of worldwide comments and studies is compelling. InForce Immune Builder is a proprietary blend of both Polysaccharide-K (PSK) and Polysaccharopeptide (PSP). Both offer much needed immune building assistance and they can be taken on a daily basis. The products are bottled in the United States in an FDA registered bottling facility that is CGMP compliant (Current Good Manufacturing Practices).

About inLife, LLC

Founded in 2007, inLife has been very successful in bringing to market products that have efficacies that are soundly based on scientific research. inLife products are now available in the U.S. as well as the U.K, Canada and Spain. For more information on inForce Immune Builder and the company, please review For further details on inForce, journalists may contact Thomas Kiklas directly at 949-648-2525.

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Founded in 2007, inLife has been very successful in bringing to market products that have efficacies that are soundly based on scientific research. inLife products are now available in the U.S. as well as the U.K, Canada and Spain. For more information on inForce Immune Builder and the company, please review For further details on inForce, journalists may contact Thomas Kiklas directly at 949-648-2525.

Click here to download this press release.

Effects of polysaccharide peptides from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor on glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in the mouse.

Yeung JH, Or PM.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong SAR, China.


The effects of polysaccharide peptide (PSP), an immunomodulator isolated from Coriolus versicolor COV-1, on glutathione (GSH) and GSH-related enzymes was investigated in C57 mouse. Administration of PSP (1-4 micromole/kg, i.p.) produced a transient, dose-dependent depletion (10-37%) of hepatic GSH, with no effect on serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity. Blood GSH was depleted (6-25%) at 3 h, followed by a rebound increase above the control GSH level (20%) at 18 h. The GSSG/GSH ratio, a measure of oxidative stress, was increased 3 h after PSP treatment but returned to normal levels at 24 h. Sub-chronic treatment of PSP (1-4 micromole/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days did not produce any significant changes in hepatic GSH levels and the GSSG/GSH ratio when measured 24 h after the final dose of PSP. PSP had little effect on glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSSG reductase) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in the liver. However, a dose-dependent increase in blood GPX activity (30-48%) was observed at 3h, which coincided with the increase in the GSSG/GSH ratio. The increase in blood GPX activity may be a responsive measure to deal with the transient oxidative stress induced by PSP treatment. The results showed that PSP only caused a transient perturbation on hepatic glutathione without affecting the GSH-related enzymes such as GST, GSSG reductase and GPX. The observed changes in blood GSH simply reflected the intra-organ translocation of glutathione, as the glutathione-related enzymes were not significantly affected by PSP treatment.

PMID: 17240508 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Characterisation and bioactivity of protein-bound polysaccharides from submerged-culture fermentation of Coriolus versicolor Wr-74 and ATCC-20545 strains.

Cui J, Goh KK, Archer R, Singh H.

Riddet Centre, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand.


The protein-bound polysaccharides of Coriolus versicolor (CPS) have been reported to stimulate overall immune functions against cancers and various infectious diseases by activating specific cell functions. A New Zealand isolate (Wr-74) and a patented strain (ATCC-20545) of C. versicolor were compared in this study. The fruit bodies of both strains were grown for visual verification. Both strains were grown in submerged-culture using an airlift fermentor with milk permeate as the base medium supplemented with glucose, yeast extract and salt. Metabolic profiles of both strains obtained over 7-day fermentation showed very similar trends in terms of biomass production (8.9-10.6 mg/ml), amounts of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) from the culture medium (1150-1132 microg/ml), and intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) from the mycelium (80-100 microg/ml). Glucose was the dominant sugar in both EPS and IPS, and the polymers each consisted of three molecular weight fractions ranging from 2 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(3 )Da. Both the EPS and IPS were able to significantly induce cytokine production (interleukin 12 and gamma interferon) in murine splenocytes in vitro. Highest levels of interleukin 12 (291 pg/ml) and gamma interferon (6,159 pg/ml) were obtained from samples containing Wr-74 IPS (0.06 microg/ml) and ATCC 20545 IPS (0.1 microg/ml), respectively. The results indicated that lower levels of EPS and IPS generally resulted in higher immune responses than did higher polymer concentrations.

PMID: 17318488 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Salidroside production by hairy roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis obtained after transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes.

Zhou X, Wu Y, Wang X, Liu B, Xu H.

Institute of Genetics and Physiology, Jilin Normal University, Siping, Jilin 136000, China.


Hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes grow faster, and are considered as genetically stable. These hairy roots can be used as an interesting material for the production of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical value. Salidroside has been identified as the major compounds from the roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR. Here, we provide an update that adds new perspectives on the prospects and challenges of producing Salidroside from hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogene in Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR. For high salidroside production, the optimal concentration for precursor (Tyrosol, Tyrosine, and Phenylalanine) and elicitor (Aspergillus niger, Coriolus versicolor, and Ganoderma lucidum) was added in the LB liquid medium, respectively. The addition of elicitor in the liquid MS medium and the utilization of precursor from chemical feeding enhanced biomass accumulation and salidroside production. The optimal concentration for elicitor and precursor in the liquid medium was 0.05 mg/l and 1 mmol/l, respectively.

PMID: 17329834 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article

In vivo effect of I’m-Yunity on hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4.

Nicandro JP, Tsourounis C, Frassetto L, Guglielmo BJ.

Dept of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


The inhibition or induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme associated with herbal medicines such as I’m-Yunity (Coriolus versicolor) can result in clinically significant herb-drug interactions. The active ingredient of I’m-Yunity is believed to be polysaccharopeptide polymer (PSP). Drug interactions between I’m-Yunity and other medications or supplements are yet to be investigated. The objective of this single-treatment, one-period, three-phase, open-labeled study was to evaluate the ability of I’m-Yunity to inhibit or induce CYP3A4 in 12 healthy adult volunteers (8 women and 4 men) aged between 23 and 54 years through the use of a CYP3A4-specific assay, the erythromycin breath test (EBT). EBT measurements are reported as percentage of 14C-Erythromycin metabolized/hr. Participants were given a 14-day supply of I’m-Yunity and instructed to take 1200 mg, three times daily with meals. Comparisons of all subjects’ mean CYP3A4 activities were performed with the EBT before and after taking I’m- Yunity. Results revealed a mean EBT change (SD) from baseline of 0.08% (0.56%) 14C-Erythromycin metabolized/hr, which was not significant (p = 0.63). Therefore, 14 days of exposure to I’m-Yunity was not associated with clinically significant CYP3A4 inhibition or induction, suggesting that short-term administration of I’m-Yunity with medications primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 is safe and not expected to be associated with significant herb-drug interactions. However, it is still unknown whether interactions exist between I’m-Yunity and other medications metabolized by other CYP450 isozymes or enzyme/transporter systems.

PMID: 17594986 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]